HIV Transmission Through Breastfeeding: A Review of Available Evidence
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No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Dotted lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters.
This publication reflects the activities of separate agencies around an issue of common concern. Each agency implements actions in accordance with the principles and policies of its mandate.
The named authors alone are responsible for the views expressed in this publication. HIV infections — transmission 2. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome — transmission 3. Breast feeding — adverse effects 4. Disease transmission,Vertical — prevention and control 5. Review literature I. Newell, Marie-Louise. This publication was edited by Dr James Gallagher. Glossary of terms Complementary food: any food, whether manufac- tured or locally prepared, used as a complement to breast milk or to a breast-milk substitute. DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid, the carrier of genetic information, found in cell nuclei.
Enterocytes: the cells that form the lining of the in- testinal wall.
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Exclusive breastfeeding: an infant receives only breast milk, and no other liquids or solids, not even water, with the exception of drops or syrups con- sisting of vitamins, mineral supplements or medi- cines. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV-2 is rare. Infant: a person from birth to 12 months of age. Intrapartum: the period during labour and delivery. Lamivudine, or 3TC: an antiretroviral drug often used in combination with zidovudine AZT Lipid: any one of a widely varied group of fats and fat-like organic substances.
Macrophage: a type of white blood cell that ingests foreign material. Macrophages help destroy bacte- ria, protozoa and tumour cells and stimulate other cells of the immune system. Mature breast milk: milk produced from about 14 days postpartum.
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Mixed feeding: feeding both breast milk and other foods or liquids. It was the first drug licensed to treat HIV infection. Today, it is commonly used in com- bination with other antiretroviral drugs to treat HIV infection, and, alone or in combination, in the pre- vention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection. Breast-milk substitute: any food being marketed or otherwise represented as a partial or total replace- ment for breast milk, whether or not suitable for that purpose. They are the main target cells for the HIV.
Their number decreases with progression of HIV infection, and their level is used as a marker of severity of the infection. Their number may increase with progres- sion of HIV infection. Cessation of breastfeeding: completely stopping breastfeeding, including suckling.
Why U=U does not cover breastfeeding | HTB | HIV i-Base
Colostrum: the thick, yellow milk secreted by the breasts during the first few days after delivery. It gradually changes into mature milk at 3—14 days postpartum; it contains more antibodies and white blood cells than mature breast milk. Commercial infant formula: a breast-milk substi- tute formulated industrially in accordance with ap- plicable Codex Alimentarius standards to satisfy the nutritional requirements of infants during the first months of life up to the introduction of com- plementary foods.
Mother-to-child transmission: transmission of HIV to a child from an HIV-infected woman during pregnancy, delivery or breastfeeding. Use of the term mother-to-child transmission implies no blame, whether or not a woman is aware of her own infec- tion status. A woman can contract HIV from un- protected sex with an infected partner, from receiving contaminated blood, from non-sterile in- struments as in the case of injecting drug users , or from contaminated medical procedures.
Neonatal: denotes the period from birth through the first 28 days of life.
Nevirapine NVP : an antiretroviral drug commonly used either to treat HIV infection or as prophy- laxis, alone or in combination with other drugs, to prevent mother-to-child transmission. PCR:polymerase chain reaction,a qualitative or quan- titative laboratory method in which the genetic material DNA or RNA of the virus is detected and amplified. Peripartum transmission: mother-to-child trans- mission of HIV occurring shortly before, during or immediately after delivery.
Postnatal transmission: mother-to-child transmis- sion of HIV after delivery, through breastfeeding.
Replacement feeding: feeding infants who are re- ceiving no breast milk with a diet that provides the nutrients the infants need until the age at which they can be fully fed on family foods. During the first six months of life, replacement feeding should be with a suitable breast-milk substitute. After six months the suitable breast-milk substitute should be complemented with other foods.
Should breastfeeding continue when mom is sick?
RNA: ribonucleic acid, a substance present in the nucleus of all living cells and in many viruses. It is an intermediate form of DNA. It is the medium by which genetic instructions from the nucleus are transmitted to the rest of the cell. RNA viral load: the result of a laboratory method, expressed as copies of RNA per ml of plasma or other body fluid; it reflects the amount of actively replicating virus in the body.